The Smithsonian also played a role in establishing the U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, which would later become the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Assistant Secretary Spencer Baird recognized that the fisheries in New England were in crisis from overfishing. After Baird established the U.S. Fish Commission Station in Woods Hole, Mass. (1871), the Smithsonian made recommendations to protect the fisheries in areas based on the results of marine studies done there. The results of the efforts were mixed—the Smithsonian didn’t have the necessary political clout to put into effect many of the recommendations—but the work further demonstrates the Smithsonian’s commitment to conservation science.
Both of these examples show that the Smithsonian has, from its beginnings, looked at problems facing our country and the world and worked to come up with solutions. We’re not always completely successful, but we try. And we keep trying. We’re still doing work like this today, through programs such as the Center for Tropical Forest Science-Forest Global Earth Observatory and Marine Global Earth Observatory.
What role, if any, do the Smithsonian’s archives play in conservation science?
In addition to historic photos, the Smithsonian Archives has an incredible collection of field notebooks, and these documents contain a wealth of information that can be useful in conservation efforts. The notebooks have observations about an area’s climate, information about native and nonnative species, and data about food chains and species distribution. Ecologists and others can look at the information in these field notes and use it when, for example, they want to restore an area.
The Smithsonian doesn’t just make this information available to those who come to the Archives. Through our Transcription Center volunteers are transcribing and digitizing these notebooks and other resources, making them available online for anyone to use. When we share data and collaborate, more gets done.
How can the humanities—history, art and culture—contribute to our thinking about conservation and Earth Optimism?
When people see the beauty in the world they are inspired to care about it, and I think that’s something the humanities bring to the conversation about conservation.
One Smithsonian story that illustrates this is that of William Hornaday, the first director of the National Zoo. Hornaday was instrumental in saving the American bison from extinction. In 1886 he traveled to Montana to collect specimens for an exhibition at the National Museum, and he was surprised at how decimated the herds had become due to hunting. Although he’s probably best known for putting live bison on display behind the Castle to educate the public about the importance of conservation, the exhibition he created inside the museum was nearly as successful in saving the species.
Hornaday’s exhibition was surrounded by glass on all four sides to give visitors a full view of the bison in their natural habitat—the animals are standing at a watering hole complete with grass and soil from the Great Plains. It was a beautiful display that brought these animals to life; in fact, it was so successful that it is still on view in Montana today.
It’s just one example, but things like Hornaday’s bison exhibition engage people and they begin to care.